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About Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs when bacteria enter any part of the urinary system and cause infection. Urinary system consists of these components.
Kidneys- remove waste and excess fluid from the blood and make urine.
Ureters – Urine produced by the kidneys into the bladder.
Bladder- It holds urine.
Urinary tract (urethra) – through which urination occurs and the bladder is emptied.
Urine passing through these parts is usually free of any germs. It contains only salts, water and waste products that the body does not need. There is a reason why urine is sterile. Urine and bladder lining have antibacterial properties. Due to this, germs (bacteria) do not develop easily in those parts. For some reason, bacteria enter the urinary tract in large numbers. In such cases the body’s natural ability to fight germs weakens and germs gain the upper hand and infection is more likely. It is common in diabetics and immunocompromised elderly. Urinary tract infections are usually caused by bacteria called E.Coli. Sometimes it can also be caused by fungus and some parasites. Urinary tract infections can also be caused by diseases like chlamydia and gonorrhea. Urinary tract infection is divided into two parts depending on the part infected.
First: Urinary tract infection. It targets infections of the ‘ureters’ that carry urine from the kidney to the bladder.
Second: getting a lower urinary tract infection. Urinary tract infection is caused by leakage of urine from the bladder.
But usually the infection starts in the ‘urinary tract’ (urethra) and if not treated in time it can spread upwards and infect any part of the body. Hence it is called ‘ascending infection’. Urethritis is the name for an infection of the urethra.
Symptoms Of Urinary Tract Infection
- The lower parts of the urinary system, i.e. the bladder or urethra, become inflamed when they become infected.
- Burning and pain when urinating as if something stuck inside.
- Frequent urge to urinate especially late at night.
- Frequent urge to urinate, feeling unable to stop.
- Desire to urinate but only a few drops come out when urination begins.
- Painful urination, foul-smelling urine, blood stains in urine.
- Cramping and pain in lower abdomen.
- Slight fever (less than 101°F), chills, and feeling lethargic.
- Symptoms appear suddenly when the upper part of the urinary system i.e. the kidneys become infected (in pyelonephritis).
- High fever above 101°F.
- Shaking cold
- humidity and vomiting
Causes Of Urinary Tract Infection
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are caused by bacteria entering the urethra and causing infection when any part of the urinary tract is irritated. There are many reasons why bacteria enter the urinary tract. Some of them are:
More In Women:
Urethral infection is more common in women than men. This is because the urethra is shorter in women than in men. Due to the short length of the urethra, many microorganisms around the female genitals and anus can easily enter her urethra and spread to the bladder from there, causing infection in those areas.
By Family Planning Method:
Certain types of birth control methods, such as the use of diaphragms, can cause urinary tract infections. The diaphragms exert pressure on the urethra. There is a possibility that the urinary tract is blocked and bacteria can grow.
When obstructions occur in the urinary system:
Pressure on any part of the urinary system in cases like kidney stones, prostate enlargement. Or even in such cases, there is a possibility of obstructing the flow of urine and causing bacterial growth and infections.
Failure To Urinate On Time:
It is good and even necessary to go and pee when you feel like peeing. By holding urine too long (this can be for many reasons), the urine stays in the bladder for too long and allows bacteria to grow there. It also comes from drinking enough water. Generally elderly people, young children, traveling women, especially women in cities are more affected.
Vaginal Infections (Vaginal Infections):
Infections occurring in the female genital tract can easily spread to the adjacent urethra causing swelling and inflammation during urination. In such condition the urge to urinate and when she urinates she passes only a small amount of urine.
- Itching around the genital area or pus with thick white discharge from it is due to a fungal infection.
- Bacterial infection can also occur along with fungal infection. White discharge from the genitals through the urethra (urethral opening) causes inflammation.
- A doctor must be consulted in case of fungal infection. Antifungal vaginal tablets are prescribed if it is found to be an infection. Apart from tablets some creams (anti fungal creams) are also available. This cream should be pumped through the applicator inside the genital area
- It is not advisable for the patient to engage in sexual activity while taking antifungal treatment. If she participates, her husband will also be infected. Even if it reduces, there is a risk of returning from the husband later.
Tips To Prevent Urinary Tract Infection:
- Do not strain urine. It is better to go and defecate when you feel the need to urinate. The bladder should be emptied until it is completely empty and not stopped midway. Failure to follow this principle may allow bacteria to enter.
- Drink more fresh water. By doing this, the bacteria are flushed out through the urine.
- If the urine is light yellow you should drink enough water. If it turns dark yellow, drink more fresh water.
- Only moisturizing soap should be used to clean the genitals.
- If you are using a diaphragm as a method of birth control, you should regularly check that the diaphragm is in place. Abdomen A bladder that is too large or does not empty properly creates an obstruction to emptying the bladder and allows bacteria to grow inside.
- If the inflammation in the urine does not subside even after two days, blood in the urine and fever should be ignored and the doctor should be consulted immediately. It is not a good practice to self-administer antibiotics without consulting a doctor.
Urinary Tract Infection Confirmation
When you go to the doctor to find out that the urine is burning or burning in the urine, he will find out whether there are white blood cells (leukocytes) or red blood cells (erythrocytes) in the urine, protein or bacteria in the urine.
The doctor may also do a urine culture as needed. Urine culture means that if bacteria are found in the urine test, the bacteria is identified through the laboratory and it grows further in a vessel (laboratory dish) and it is known that it is a type of bacteria. Also to know whether the bacteria can be eradicated by different antibiotic drugs. Through it the doctor prescribes the necessary antibiotics for the patient. .
Urinary Tract Infection Complications
Urinary tract infections are not a problem if timely and proper treatment is taken. But if it is considered a normal symptom and not treated, there is a risk of serious complications. If left untreated it can lead to kidney infections (pyelonephritis). If this condition progresses, the kidneys can be permanently damaged over time. Young children and the elderly are generally at greater risk. This is because they don’t care much about the fact that they are common traits. Untreated urinary tract infection in pregnant women can lead to low birth weight, stillborn babies and premature births.