Polycystic Kidney Disease

Polycystic Kidney Disease: Symptoms,Causes,& Treatment


Polycystic Kidney Disease:Some develop cysts and stones inside the kidney. These are round sacs that contain a water-like liquid inside. Formation of cysts inside the kidney is called ‘Polycystic Kidney Disease’. Cysts can form in any organ of the body but are most common in the kidneys. Moreover when cysts are formed in the kidney the effect spreads to other parts of the body and cysts can also be formed in the respective organs.

People with ‘Polycystic Kidney Disease’ are likely to get ‘High B. P’. It may eventually result in “Kidney Failure.” The side effects of ‘Polycystic Kidney Disease’ are many. Most of them are preventable with regular checkups and proper treatment. One of the avoidable pitfalls is ‘High B.P.

Symptoms Of Polycystic Kidney Disease

  • High BP
  • Pain in the area around the waist or in the back due to enlargement of the kidneys.
  • Abdominal pain.
  • Abdominal enlargement and appearance of height.
  • Blood in urine.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Kidney stones.
  • Damage to the kidneys (renal failure).
  • Kidneys are susceptible to infection.

Causes Of Polycystic Kidney Disease

Cysts that form in the kidneys are round and contain a watery fluid. These cysts are of different sizes. Sizes range from small to slightly larger. It is common to have more than one kidney cyst. Especially in those over 50 years of age.

A benign but common cyst does not require any treatment. Having more than one cyst should not be considered as ‘Polycystic Kidney Disease’. The disease is inherited due to the presence of abnormal genes. It has two types.

The onset of symptoms between the ages of 30 and 40 is called ‘Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Either of the parents gets this disease. If one of the parents has the disease, the child has a 50% chance of developing the disease. This type accounts for 85 to 90 percent of all cases of polycystic kidney disease. Very rarely the symptoms of this disease appear in childhood.

Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) occurs when both parents have abnormal genes for kidney cysts. Symptoms of this disease begin to appear within a few days of birth. It begins to appear in childhood or adolescence. People with this disease have cysts not only in the kidneys but also in other parts of the body. Formation in organs is also possible. Otherwise the kidneys will get damaged more.

Screening And Diagnosis

Various tests are available to determine how many kidney cysts are present, how big they and how healthy the kidney cells are. Some of them are:

Ultrasound Examination:

This test is mostly used to diagnose the disease. A device called a transducer is placed on the patient’s body and sends sound waves inside. Those waves are reflected back to the device and the computer shows an image of the kidneys.

CT Scan (Computerized Tomography Scan):

This test sends X-rays into the body and shows 1 cross-sectional images of the kidneys at different angles.

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scan):

The test shows cross-sectional views of the kidney using magnetic fields, radio waves.

Genetic Testing:

Blood samples are taken from at least three of the patient’s family members and tested for polycystic kidney disease genes. The patient’s blood test results are then compared with those of family members. This is a very expensive test. This test is done only in cases where someone in the family is donating a kidney.


Hypertension is an important complication of this disease. If not treated properly, high blood pressure can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, heart disease and stroke.

Kidney Failure:

One of the most serious complications of polycystic kidney disease is the gradual deterioration of kidney function. This disease occurs in people over 60 years of age. 75% of people will experience kidney failure by the age of 70. The risk is even higher if he has high BP and blood or protein in the urine. Due to this disease, the kidneys slowly lose their ability to remove impurities from the blood. Keeps water and chemicals in balance in the body. Over time the cysts (cysts) grow and put pressure on the kidneys. This usually results in a healthy lower back and spots of high BP. Due to the inability of the kidneys to excrete the impurities, the impurities reach toxic levels in the blood and cause disorders like ‘uremia’.

As the disease progresses, end-stage kidney failure occurs where the kidneys stop working completely. And when this condition occurs regular dialysis or kidney transplant is needed to save life.

Getting Pregnant

Many women with this disease have difficulty conceiving. If she gets pregnant it will threaten her life. This risk is even higher for women who have hypertension before pregnancy.

Cysts Growing In The Liver:

People with kidney cysts are more likely to develop liver cysts as they age. 75% of patients will experience this condition at some point in their life. Although these cysts occur in both men and women, women tend to have larger liver cysts than men. Also, women get it at a younger age. Perhaps the reason for this is the female hormones produced in them. Liver cysts are also common in pregnant women with polycystic disease.

Aneurysm In The Brain:

An artery in the brain swells up like a balloon and bursts and bleeds after years, it is called an aneurysm. 4 to 10 percent of families with polycystic kidney disease are likely to have this disorder.

Heart Valve Abnormalities:

A quarter of people with this disease can have mitral valve prolapse. When this condition occurs, the mitral valve in the heart does not close properly and blood leaks back.

Colon Problems:

People with this disease may develop a leaky gut (hemia), pouches or cysts on the walls of the intestines (diverticulosis).

Chronic Pain:

Pain is a common symptom in people with polycystic kidney disease. This pain is in the side of the waist or behind the waist.


High B.P

Keeping high BP under control can delay kidney cysts and kidney damage. For this, apart from taking dietary precautions like consuming food that is low in salt and fat, medicines are also required.


Pain in this disease often occurs in the waist or back. Therefore, depending on the severity of the pain, pain relief such as acetaminophen may be needed. If the cyst is too large to cause pressure on the flanks, the doctor may suggest surgery.

Blood In Urine:

If streaks of blood appear in the urine you should drink plenty of water to dilute the urine. Because of this, if blood clots (clots) block anywhere in the urinary tract (urinary tracts), they are flushed out through the urine. Rest can also help stop bleeding.

Bladder And Kidney Infections

Regular antibiotic treatment for infections can prevent the risk of kidney damage.

Kidney Failure

Kidneys remove waste and excess fluid from the blood. Kidney damage from polycystic kidney disease may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.

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