Kidney stones

Kidney stones:Symptoms,Types,Reasons &Treatment

About Kidney stones

Kidney stones: When some substances like calcium and uric acid in the urine form as plaques in the kidney and these plaques stick together and form hard clots, they are called ‘kidney stones’. Kidney stones range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a soccer ball. They are also formed in the kidney. Can occur in both kidneys. It can descend from the kidneys and end up in the ureters or bladder. Or it can slip through all of these and exit through the urethra.

Kidney stones usually form in the middle part of the kidney. Urine is produced in the urethra. This means that kidney stones can be washed away by urine if the cells are small at the mouth of the ureter. We do not know whether they are formed or excreted. If the stones are large in the kidney, when they go down from the kidney, they get stuck between the walls of the ureter and every time they travel down, they scratch the walls of the ureter, causing severe pain in that part. Additionally, there may be blockages in the urethra that prevent urine from flowing out.

If a kidney stone reaches the size of a large kidney stone, it can stick outside the kidney and create a kidney condition. There are various reasons for the formation of kidney stones in some people. Middle-aged people are more likely to be older than older adults. More in men than in women. People who live in hot places are more likely to get kidney stones. The reason for this is that they do not have enough water in their body, their body becomes dehydrated due to the thickening of urine and accumulation of salts. People who take long bed rest, pregnant women, drinking less water are more likely to get kidney stones. There are opportunities. In 90 percent of cases, the cause of kidney stones is unknown. Can be hereditary.

This is more likely to occur in long-term users of calcium-containing antacids. Also, low intake of ‘B’ vitamin and magnesium and high intake of vitamin-‘D’ can lead to formation of kidney stones. Consuming this causes imbalance of these vitamins and minerals in the body and increases calcium oxalate in the urine. When the imbalance is too great, calcium oxalate becomes insoluble in the urine and begins to build up. Kidney stones form!!

Symptoms Of Kidney stones

Kidney stones are painless if they remain in the kidney. But if the stone enters the urethra connecting the kidney and bladder from the kidney, severe pain begins.

  • The pain in the area of the kidney starts suddenly from the back side of the waist and gradually spreads to the front abdomen.
  • Nausea and vomiting may occur in his futile attempt to relieve himself.
  • From there it spreads from testicles (scrotum), penis and genitals in women.
  • When a kidney stone passes through the ureter into the bladder, the pain moves in waves.
  • The intensity of the pain reaches its peak after a while and lasts for a minute and then subsides. It may start again in a few minutes.
  • Pain due to kidney stones is in the areas shown in shadow.
  • When the stone is large, the urethra tries to push it. At that time, the inner walls of the ureter get scratched by stones in the kidney and blood comes out. The blood makes the urine reddish pink in color.
  • When the stone from the bladder gets into the bladder the person feels the urge to urinate and burning while urinating.
  • Fever, chills.
  • Urinary urge to urinate more.
  • Pain when urinating, burning* foam in urine, or foul smelling urine.

See a doctor as soon as these symptoms appear. Kidney stones, no matter how small or large, do not cause us any pain as long as they do not move, from the kidney to the bladder. It’s like it doesn’t exist. But as soon as they start sliding down, they scratch the walls of the urethra and cause excruciating pain. It cannot be assumed that the severity of the pain depends on the size of the kidney stone. Sides Sharp stones, however small, can cause severe pain. Also, even if the round stone is big, it may not cause that much pain.

There Are Four Types Of Kidney Stones

Doctors recognize four main types of kidney stones. It is important to know that the kidney stone that appears in a patient is different and that the mixture of substances in it can be treated to find out the root cause of the stone formation.

Calcium Stone:

These are kidney stones which are found in 70 to 80 percent of cases. Oxalate is added to these calcium stones. Oxalic acid is definitely present in vegetables, fruits and pulses that we eat daily. Calcium is also a part of our normal healthy diet. Apart from that, the liver in our body also prepares oxalate which is needed by the body. For these reasons, excess oxalate is likely to persist because the kidneys do not need our bodies.

What usually happens is that the bones and muscles use up any leftover calcium that enters the kidneys. This excess calcium is excreted in the urine in most people. But for various reasons, in some people calcium stays in the kidneys instead of passing out through the urine and forms stones with other waste products, especially calcium oxalate.

Phosphate Stones:

These stones are more common in women. These stones usually form when the urinary system becomes infected. Phosphate rocks contain magnesium and ammonia. Timely and proper treatment of urinary tract infection prevents these stones from forming. Especially women should be very careful in this matter. Phosphate stones can sometimes become large enough to completely block the urine-filled space in the kidney.

Uric Acid Stones:

Uric acid is produced as part of a process (metabolism) in the body using the proteins in the food we eat. The acid stones form when excess uric acid is produced and stagnates in the body. People who eat a lot of meat produce more uric acid. People who develop uric acid stones can prevent stone formation by cutting back on meat. Uric acid stones are also commonly formed in people with gout.

Cystine Stones:

An amino acid called cysteine is essential for the development of muscles, nerves and other parts of our body. These stones form when there is too much cystine in the urine. Cystine stones are rare. Only 2 percent of kidney stone patients have these stones. It is usually hereditary.

Reasons Of Kidney Stones

When the water, various mineral salts and acids in the urine are out of balance, calcium and uric acid are present in the urine in excess of water. In addition, substances that keep plaques from sticking together are also lost in the urine. As a result, kidney stones are formed. Kidney stones are also more likely to form when the urine is highly acidic or alkaline. Kidney stones can also occur if any part of the urinary system has problems absorbing or excreting calcium.

Sometimes kidney stones are also caused by any kidney disease or hereditary kidney disease. Arthritis such as gout. Diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease AP, which causes inflammation of the intestines, can also cause some types of kidney stones. The use of certain types of drugs like furosemide used to prevent heart failure, topiramate used for epilepsy, and indinavir used for AIDS can also cause kidney stones.

The thyroid gland itself has four small parathyroid glands. They produce parathyroid hormone that regulates calcium levels in the blood. People with a genetic predisposition to kidney stones are more likely to develop kidney stones. If the parathyroid glands secrete too much parathyroid hormone, even if it is too low, calcium stores in the body will build up and form ‘calcium kidney stones’.

Diagnosis of Kidney Stones

If the kidney stones are very small, 90% of them will pass out in the urine without you knowing within 3 to 6 weeks of their formation. If you go to the doctor when there is a stone in the kidney and the pain is severe, depending on the part of the pain, depending on your past medical history, urinalysis, ultrasound, X-ray, CT scan etc. Are there kidney stones and if so in which part of the ureter? Doctors usually perform the following tests to determine whether any part of the body is damaged. Intravenous Pyelogram IVP: X-ray images taken by this test show the kidneys and ureters in which CG, in which store, and how the urine has entered.

CT Scan:

A type of C.T. called non contrast spiral computed tomography. Used to scan the urinary tract and kidneys. The patient is placed on tables attached to a large donut-shaped scanner, and the tables are then passed inside the scanner. The scanner moves around and takes x-ray images of internal organs (kidneys, etc.) at different angles. It images the internal organs more clearly than a normal CT scan.

Retrograde pyelogram: This test is performed if the presence of kidney stones is not completely confirmed by C.T scan or IVP test. In this test, images are taken by passing dye directly from the kidneys into the ureters, which carry urine to the bladder instead of through the nerves.

Urine Test:

A test called urinalysis shows the amount of various substances in the urine. It indicates the acidity (pH) of the urine and the presence of blood in the urine. Urinary tract infection is diagnosed by urine culture.

Abdominal X-ray:

Abdominal images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder are seen. If there is a kidney stone anywhere in the middle, it will be known. If you feel that there is a stone, you can prescribe the necessary medicines to pass it out and after a few weeks, you can do this test again to know whether the stone has completely disappeared from the kidney.

Ultrasound Examination:

In this test, called an ultrasonogram, images are taken by sending sound waves. This test is very useful for pregnant women.


You go to the doctor when the pain is severe. Once a kidney stone is diagnosed, the doctor will prescribe pain relievers (such as ibuprofen) that will go away on their own and tell you to wait and see. If it doesn’t seem to pass some procedure is done to remove the stone. Usually the stone is 5 mm. (0.2 inches): The stone passes in the urine without any treatment other than drinking plenty of water and using pain medication.

The smaller the stone, the more likely it is to pass out. 80% of stones less than 4 mm pass on their own. 5 mm to 10 mm stones have a 50% chance of passing out. About 1 to 2 percent of kidney stones go untreated unless treated by a doctor. Kidney stones that pass on their own usually pass within 1-3 weeks of symptoms appearing.

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