About Bone Cancer
Bone cancer is somewhat uncommon. It starts in any bone in the body. The long bones of the arms and legs mainly occur. Not all cancers that occur in the bones can be classified under bone cancer. Disease that starts elsewhere in the body and spreads to the bones is a primary organ cancer and not ‘bone cancer’. Cancer that has metastasized to bone from another organ is called secondary or metastatic bone cancer. Disease that starts directly in the bones is called primary bone cancer. The disease does not fall under the category of cancer that originates from the bone marrow, which produces blood cells in the bones. It becomes blood cancer (leukemia).
Symptoms Of Bone Cancer
- Bone pain.
- Swelling, tender pain in the cancerous bone.
- Bones break easily.
- Unexpected weight loss.
Reasons Of Bone Cancer
The causes of disease are not known. It is believed to be due to a defect in the arrangement of the genetic material (cell DNA). This difference directs cells to divide and grow. It causes the cells to grow uncontrollably. They will not perish even though the ages are approaching. All the cells grow like that form a lump (tumor) in that part, and after some time, the lump grows and penetrates the side parts. This disease is classified into different types depending on the type of cells the cancer is made of. Important ones include:
Osteosarcoma (Osteosarcoma): This cancer, which forms in bone cells, mostly occurs in children and young adults.
Chondrosarcoma: Cancer occurs in the cartilage cells (cartilage cells) at the end of bones. Older adults are more common.
Ewing’s Sarcoma: It is not clear where this cancer starts in the bone, but scientists believe it starts in the nerve tissue of the bones. Most children and young people who get this malignancy do so.
Who Can Get Bone Cancer?
It is unclear why this disease occurs but it is thought to develop in people with the following risk factors.
Inheritance (Hereditary Genetic Syndromes):
Certain genetic syndromes are inherited and cause bone cancer. Li-Frameni syndrome, in particular, can result from hereditary retinoblastoma defects.
Paget’s Disease (Paget’s Disease of Bone): Adolescents are more likely to develop the disease due to their predisposing condition.
A person is exposed to high doses of radiation as part of treatment if it causes cancer in another part of the body and the person has developed the disease earlier.
Diagnosis Of Disease
A doctor diagnoses the disease by removing some tissue from the tumor on the bone and performing a biopsy. Two types of biopsy are done for this disease:
1. A needle is inserted into the skin and inserted into the tumor to remove tissue. In this biopsy, a needle is inserted through the skin, and a portion of the tumor is removed.
2. Surgical removal of a portion of the tumor. In this surgical biopsy, the surgeon makes an incision in the skin and removes the entire tumor (excisional biopsy) or only a small part of the tumor (excisional biopsy). After a biopsy is found to be cancer, the following tests are used to determine the cancer stage.
- Bone scan
- Water Scan (CT Scan)
- MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
- PET Scan (Positron Emission Tomography)
Stages In Bone Cancer
Cancer is confined to the bones and does not spread to other parts. Low grade in biopsy is not aggressive.
Even if the cancer is confined to the bones and has not spread to other parts of the body, it is considered high-grade, considered aggressive on biopsy.
Stage III :
Suppose cancer is found in two or three places in the bone, stage 3. A high grade in a biopsy is considered aggressive.
The cancer spreads from the bone to other parts of the body like the brain, liver and lungs.
Treatment for this disease depends on where cancer originated, what type of cancer it is, and what stage it is at. This is done at the discretion of the patient, depending on the patient’s other health condition. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are given separately or in combination.
Surgery for the disease aims to remove the entire cancerous part. For this, the surgeon removes the tumor along with some of the healthy tissue surrounding it. There are three types of surgery:
Removal Of The Entire Limb: In cases where the tumor is very large, or the cancer is in an intricate part of the bone (complicated point), the surgeon removes the entire bone or part of the bone (resection).
Removal Of Only The Cancerous Part: When it is possible to separate the nerves and tissues adjacent to the cancerous part of the bone, the surgeon removes only the cancerous part of the bone and places a special metal device (special metal prosthesis) in that place.
Surgery For Sensitive Bones: Unlike long bones like the legs and arms, when the cancer is in bones like the ribs and spine, the surgeon removes only part of the cancerous bone and surrounding tissue. Try to remove as little bone as possible, especially if the cancer is in part like the spine. A piece of bone from another body or a special metal device is implanted into the removed part.
This treatment is usually used when the disease cannot be removed surgically. Radiation therapy is used to destroy any remaining cancer cells after surgery. Signs and Symptoms It is used to relieve pain when the disease is very advanced.
Drugs are used in chemotherapy to treat cancer. Chemotherapy is combined with radiation therapy or chemotherapy to reduce the size of the tumor before surgery or surgery when removing the entire organ. Chemotherapy is also used when cancer has spread beyond the bone to other parts of the body.